Ohio or the buckeye state is located in the Midwestern part of United States of America. This state stretches from 80° 32′ W to 84° 49′ W and 38° 27′ N to 41° 58′ N. Towards its east lie the states of Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Indiana lies to the west; Kentucky and West Virginia form the southern borders while Michigan and Lake Erie is located on the north. The capital of Ohio is Columbus.
The general geography of the state of Ohio can be described as follows:
- Ohio occupies a key position linking the highly industrialized eastern sea board with the Midwestern states. This has contributed largely towards its economic development.
- The state occupies an area of 44828 square miles. It is 220 miles long and 220 miles wide.
- Most of the state consists of gently rolling uplands. The basic Physiography is as follows:
- The north of the state is bordered by Lake Erie and beside this lake lies an extension of the Great Lakes plain. This is a fertile stretch of very gently rolling plains.
- Another plain called the till plain occupies the western portion of the state. It is also very fertile and marks the beginning of the Corn Belt.
- To the south of the Lake Erie plains lie the Appalachian plateau or the Alleghany plateau. It consists of rolling hills and valleys that become steeper in the south. This region is rich in mineral wealth.
- A small area of southern Ohio forms the Bluegrass Region continuing from the adjacent state of Kentucky. This region has low fertility.
- Most of the area of Ohio consists of glaciated plains. The highest point is Campbell hill located within the till plain. It has an altitude of 1550 feet.
- The major rivers of the state include Great Miami River, Muskingum River, Maumee River, and Cuyahoga River etc. Though the Ohio River forms a long boundary of the state, the actual river falls in Kentucky.
The climatic characteristics of the state of Ohio can be described as follows:
- Ohio has a humid continental type of climate with cold winters and warm summers.
- The average temperature ranges between 85.8°F and 15.5°F.
- The highest recorded temperature in Ohio is 113°F in 1934 while the lowest recorded temperature is -39°F in 1899.
- Rainfall in the state is average.
- Few tornadoes are recorded here. Along the shores of Lake Erie lake effect snowstorms are common.
Flora and fauna
The biological wealth of Ohio is as follows:
- Vast diversity of plants and animals are found in Ohio. In fact, more than 2500 species of trees have been recorded in the state.
- The main species of trees are oak, maple, poplar, pine, ash, hickory, birch, beech, sycamore, horse chestnut etc.
- The different animals of Ohio include fox, raccoon, white tailed deer, mink, coyote, beaver, opossum, bobcat etc.
- Green winged teal, mourning dove, ducks, woodpeckers, cardinal, warblers, ruffled grouse are the birds found in the state of Ohio.
- The fish species of the state include bass, perch, trout, pickerel etc. Various types of snakes and turtles are also found in the state.
The history of the state of Ohio is as follows:
- The Ohio valley was occupied by nomadic tribes as early as 13000 BC. Between 1000 and 800 BC the Adena culture occupied the state. Later the region came under the influence of the Native Americans.
- The first European colony in Ohio was established by the French in the eighteenth century. This area was ceded to the British by the Treaty of Paris.
- The Northwest Territory was created in 1787. Finally, Ohio was admitted into statehood by an Act of Congress in 1803.
- In 1835, Ohio and Michigan fought over a small strip of Toledo. Ultimately, it was decided that Michigan would give up its claim on Toledo in return for western part of the Upper Peninsula.
- Ohio played a crucial role in the civil war as troops and provisions were moved through the state. The Battle of Shiloh proved to be a costly victory for the state. Three leading generals of the Union Grant, Sherman and Sheridan were all from the state of Ohio.
- Eight presidents have originated from the state of Ohio. As a result this state is also known as the Mother of Presidents.
Facts of interest
Here are some facts about Ohio which you will find interesting:
Ohio has a pennant shaped flag adopted in 1902. It shows 17 stars to depict that it is the seventeenth state. The white circle represents the initial of the state while the red circle depicts the buckeye nut. The red and white stripes represent the roadways and waterways of the state.
The major icons of the state of Ohio are:
- Flower – Scarlet carnation
- Tree – Buckeye
- Mammal – white tailed deer
- Bird – Cardinal
- Reptile – Black racer snake
- The principal cities of Ohio are Cincinnati, Toledo, Cleveland, Columbus, Akron, Dayton, Parma etc.